Electric Car Conversions
Posted by starstuff on Monday December 29, 2008 11:11pm,UTC
Posted by starstuff on Thursday January 01, 2009 5:11pm,UTC
Posted by starstuff on Thursday January 01, 2009 5:14pm,UTC
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert=George_Christodoulou
"There are basically two types of motors: the AC conversion and the DC conversion. The AC conversion is more expensive but gives higher acceleration and can make the car carry more load. It is easily charged and will sustain the charge for long. The AC conversion would also last longer. The DC system is cheaper but will carry less load. It is not as durable as the AC system and has a short life span.
"The AC system would fit larger cars and heavy trucks that are been converted to electric. They provide better traction and can withstand heavy usage. It is best for converted cars that need to do a lot of out of state traveling. The DC systems would however suit a light truck mostly used for city driving. It cannot provide the high speed that the AC system offers but would be strong enough to move smaller sedans."
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=John_Bigman
"The DC motor offers 96 to 192 volts. This is the type you will find most in many electric cars. Originally this is electrical system used by forklifts. DC systems are easy to install and do not cost so much. It may give limited acceleration and will heat too quickly. You may not be able to drive this kind of motor for a long time. The DC system may not be able to give you top speed. It is specially suited for small cars and light trucks.
"The AC system is usually a three-phase AC motor running at 240 volts with a 300 volt battery pack. An AC system is also easy to install. You would be able to use any industrial type motor. Whatever the power rating, you may be able to fix this type of motor in your electric car. Many a time, this type of motors have something called regenerative braking which will convert the motor into a generator to recharge the batteries when the car stops. The AC system will give you more power and better acceleration. It is well suited for larger cars and trucks."
There are a lot of electric motors out there, but just a few make up the majority of the motors being used in electric cars. When people choose a motor for their car, they're balancing factors like cost, availability, and the "do it yourself factor" - the confidence that they can get all these expensive gizmos installed and not just wind up with a project scattered all over the garage...a well-known cause of marital discord; ) - more
There are four main types of DC motor, namely permanent magnet, series, shunt and seperately excited. The latter three all use field coils in the stator (the part which doesn't move) to generate a magnetic field for the rotor to spin in, and their name simply refers to the way the field coils are wired with respect to the rotor coils. All four types use a commutator to control which rotor coils are energised at any given time in order to maintain rotation, and it is enough just to apply a DC voltage across their terminals to get the motor to spin, so they are relatively easy to control.
Currently series DC are the most economical and commonly used type of motor in electric vehicles. Being a tried-and-tested technology, they are actually quite good – with efficiencies up to 90% and only needing servicing every 100,000kms or so. However using a commutator is restrictive and a source of inefficiency. Also, with series DC motors regenerative braking is very difficult to do (in fact, you basically have to operate the motor as a sepex DC motor). Regen can increase your range by 10-20%, so is quite valuable.
The most popular brands of DC motors for EVs are Advanced DC and NetGain.
Permanent Magnet DC Motor
DC Motor with wound stator
Brushless DC Motors
In a brushless DC motor (BLDC), the rotor has permanent magnets and the stator has an electronically-controlled rotating field, using sensors (rotary encoders or back-EMF) to detect rotor position. As such they have no commutator, and tend to be more efficient and more powerful than commutated motors. They do require a more complicated motor controller, although as the technology matures and costs come down they are becoming increasingly popular, particularly for smaller motors.
The main disadvantage for EV use is the cost of the large permanent magnet(s) required for the rotor, and the added expense of the speed controller. Unfortunately, at present there are no economically viable BLDC options available for EV use. ZEVA is hoping to change this in the near future.
Two example manufacturers currently producing good brushless motors are UQM and Aveox.
Brushless DC Motor ("in-runner" type)
Although there are a variety of motors which will run on AC power, for EV use it usually refers to AC induction.
The operation of induction motors is a somewhat difficult concept to grasp at first. Basically they use a rotating magnetic field in the stator to induce a magnetic field in the rotor and hence a current to flow in the rotor's coils. The rotor coils actually just loop around on themself - they are not explicitly powered. The induced field in the rotor tried to stay aligned with the rotating field of the stator, so it turns to chase the stator's field. Due to loads on the motor, the rotor's field is forced to rotate slightly slower than the stator's field (if it kept up exactly, there would be no difference in the fields and hence no torque).
Three phase induction motors are very common for industrial use because they are highly efficient and reliable. These same advantages apply for electric vehicle use, except for the added complication that a variable-speed inverter is required to control the AC motor from a DC power supply (the battery). These are a relatively expensive piece of hardware. Although they do include regenerative braking and are generally more efficient, AC systems currently cost about twice as much as series DC.
The most popular brands for AC induction motors suitable for EVs are Siemens and Azure Dynamics.
AC Induction Motor
Currently, the most economical (and indeed common) option for electric vehicles is series DC technology. However, it is likely that all commutated motors will be phased out over the next decade or two, since a commutator's functionality can be replaced by clever electronics (which is getting cheaper every day), and with improved reliability and efficiency. At present, AC induction and permanent magnet brushless DC are the best technologies available, with efficiencies up to 98%, silent operation, and almost never requiring any servicing. They each have various advantages and disadvantages over one another. It will be interesting to see which one becomes the new standard in the years to come.
Posted by starstuff on Monday January 05, 2009 12:46am,UTC
12, 24, 36 & 48 Volt Auxiliary Heaters
"12 Volt Auxiliary Heaters & Fans that plug into the cigarette lighter to defrost the Windshield with warm air or for instant warmth in a small concentrated area. 12 Volt Heaters are limited in power because of the maximum current draw that is available from the cigarette lighter socket and will only produce warm and not hot air. The larger heaters (Direct Battery Hook-up or Hot Water Cab Heaters) are able to warm a small area such as a truck cab and need to be directly wired to the Battery or a 12, 24 volt high current (30A+) source at the fuse box...." - more
Posted by starstuff on Monday January 05, 2009 12:51am,UTC
Vacuum brakes etc
Traditional friction-based braking is still used with electrical regenerative braking
for the following reasons:
- The regenerative braking effect rapidly reduces at lower speeds, therefore the friction brake is still required in order to bring the vehicle to a complete halt.
- The friction brake is a necessary back-up in the event of failure of the regenerative brake.
- Most road vehicles with regenerative braking only have power on some wheels (as in a 2WD car) and regenerative braking power only applies to such wheels, so in order to provide controlled braking under difficult conditions (such as in wet roads) friction based braking is necessary on the other wheels.
- The amount of electrical energy capable of dissipation is limited by either the capacity of the supply system to absorb this energy or on the state of charge of the battery or capacitors. No regenerative braking effect can occur if another electrical component on the same supply system is not currently drawing power or if the battery or capacitors are already charged. For this reason, it is normal to also incorporate dynamic braking to absorb the excess energy.
- Under emergency braking it is desirable that the braking force exerted is the maximum allowed by the friction between the wheels and the surface without slipping, over the entire speed range from the vehicle's maximum speed down to zero. The maximum force available for acceleration is typically much less than this except in the case of extreme high-performance vehicles. Therefore, the power required to be dissipated by the braking system under emergency braking conditions may be many times the maximum power which is delivered under acceleration. Traction motors sized to handle the drive power may not be able to cope with the extra load and the battery may not be able to accept charge at a sufficiently high rate. Friction braking is required to absorb the surplus energy in order to allow an acceptable emergency braking performance.
For these reasons there is typically the need to control the regenerative braking and match the friction and regenerative braking to produce the desired total braking output. The GM EV-1 was the first commercial car to do this. Engineers Abraham Farag and Loren Majersik were issued 2 patents for this 'Brake by Wire' technology.
Posted by starstuff on Monday January 05, 2009 5:44pm,UTC
Gotta get rid of that explosive gas...? Why not collect it? Maybe something on this order?
Use it for fuel of some sort. We know the ICE people want it and it's great for fuel cells.
Hot Flash 01/09/2009
Here's something new that might make capturing and storing battery hydrogen practical:
Manchester’s crispy noodles suck up hydrogen
Posted by jumperhead on May 9th, 2008
"...I purchased my battery box brushless fan from KTA Serviceshttp://www.kta-ev.com/ http://www.kta-ev.com/
at a cost of $22 plus
shipping. It is a 35cfm 120ACV that I wired into the AC feed to the charger.
So the fan only runs when the vehicle is charging and uses the house AC
voltage. When driving the batteries are cooled with a little ram effect off
the road through an inlet opening opposite and forward from the pulling fan.
See a journal entry on this site athttp://www.saturn.lynnautorepair.com/?q=node/238
EV Battery Box Ventilation
& Test Video You can test the box afterwards for leaks with a smoke
Posted by starstuff on Monday January 12, 2009 2:15pm,UTC
(By Michael Brown with Shari Prange, 128 pgs., 8 1/2" x 11", soft-cover, 1993)
This third edition of the definitive hands-on conversion manual has been greatly updated and expanded, and printed with higher quality production and binding. It takes you by the hand through the entire process of converting an internal combustion car to electricity, from choosing a donor car through removing the internal combustion system, installing the electric system, and all the way to driving, charging, maintenance, and even talking with reporters. - more
100 years ago
Posted by starstuff on Friday January 16, 2009 12:32pm,UTC
Electric Ford Courier Project
Posted by starstuff on Thursday February 26, 2009 1:03pm,UTC
"...It's a banana yellow 1974 Ford Courier Pickup. This truck was found in a chicken coop in Yakima, WA by a friend in the early 90's, with only 18,000 miles on it. I always though it would be a good electric vehicle conversion -- lightweight (2700lbs curb weight), lots of weight capacity (1400lbs), no power steering or power brakes, and quite simple to work on. Over the years, it was used as a second vehicle, but never that much, and only had 36,000 miles on it when the engine was pulled to make it an EV...." - more
Licensing And Insuring Homebuilt Vehicles
Posted by starstuff on Sunday March 01, 2009 3:22pm,UTC
"This document explains the licensing procedures and regulations in the U.S. that apply to homebuilt watercraft, hovercraft, three wheel vehicles, and passenger cars. It also provides tips on obtaining insurance.
"Vehicles that are operated on the public roadways or waterways must have a title and a license. With manufactured vehicles, the title is issued by the manufacturer to identify the particular vehicle and establish ownership. A title is issue only once in the life of a vehicle and lasts as long as the vehicle exists. Normally, a vehicle does not have to meet any regulations nor even to work in order to be become a titled entity. In order to actually operate a vehicle on the public roadways or waterways, however, it must be licensed. A license will be issued on a homebuilt vehicle only if it meets applicable standards of construction and is appropriately equipped. A license will have to be annually renewed by paying a fee...." - more
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